Production of Antimicrobial Peptides

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   To appreciate the importance of asceptic techniques with regard to bacterial cell cultivation, growth, purity and final harvesting by bench centrifugation in order to obtain a supernatant with extracellular bacterial by-products. The production of bacteriocins by S.warneri was measured on a150mm agar plate inoculated with Kocuria rhizophila (A Gram-positive bacteria) to determine antimicrobial…

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Production of Propylene Glycol From Glycerol

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. As the biodiesel production is increasing rapidly, the crude glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetables oils has been generated in a great quantity. About 10% of crude glycerol will be formed during the synthesis of biodiesel from triglycerides. Products obtained from glycerol…

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Cetuximab Antibody Production

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Cancer has been studied widely for many decades and is a major part of ongoing research worldwide. During the research a new generation of so-called targeted therapies have been produced to target specific molecular processes that promote cancerous tumour growths. The research lead to development of the drug called Cetuximab which is used…

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Recombination Cloning E.Coli Experiment

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Nucleic acid manipulation is one of the most widely used techniques for the production of various therapeutic and commercial products. The technique mainly involves micro isolation plasmid DNA from cells by using lysozymes, restriction of isolated DNA by using restriction endonucleases, ligation of restricted DNA and desired gene using DNA ligases, transformation of…

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Production Of Wood Vinegar From Empty Fruit Bunch Biology Essay

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Pyroligneous acid, or pyrolysis oil also called wood vinegar, is a dark liquid produced throughout the natural act of carbonization which occurs when wood is heated in an airless container during charcoal production. When the gas is cooled, it condenses into liquid. Raw wood vinegar has more than 200 chemicals, such as acetic acid, formaldehyde,…

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Production of Pure Lipases

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Most Rhizopus lipases described in the literature are produced by their host cells in very small amounts, which is not suitable for large-scale industrial applications. Another drawback of working with native microorganisms is that Rhizopus sp. usually produces different isolipases with different biocatalytic properties, which complicates biocatalytic application with unwanted side effects caused by unrelated enzymes…

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Eco-column Experiment to View How an Ecosystem Functions

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this lab experiment is to provide the opportunity to view how an ecosystem functions, and how it changes over time. It allows one to observe and assess the properties and various components within the eco-column. The eco-column is set up with an aquatic habitat, decomposition habitat, and a…

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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotic Organisms

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Question 1 Part A Bacteria are prokaryotes. They are single celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. The size ranges from 10 to 100 micrometres long from looking at them on a microscopic level. The bacteria can have a number of shapes that determine what it look like, its three…

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Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Difference and Similarities

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     The similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Prokarytotic cells Eukaryotic cells Similarities Nucleus The DNA floats within the nucleus of this cell. The division of the cell happens via mitosis. The nucleus is known as a nucleoid which isn’t a true nucleus like eukaryotic cell. (John Wiley and Sons. (2014). How…

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Effect of Enzyme Concentration on Protein Digestion

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Enzymes were discovered by a German chemist Eduard Buchner near the end of the 19th century. He had been trying to extract a fluid for medicinal use from yeast, however, the yeast extract kept going bad. He then decided to add sugar to the yeast, however, the yeast converted the sugar into alcohol,…

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Properties And Uses Of Green Fluorescent Protein

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   ABSTRACT Green fluorescent protein has natural fluorescent properties which can be used in various applications. Mutagenesis of wild type GFP gives variants that are widely used as protein fusion tags, as biomarkers, used in studying protein interactions and localization of signals. GFP variants have led to technological advancement in biological studies such as…

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Properties of Dental Plaque Biofilm

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     The dental plaque is a complex, metabolically interconnected, highly organized microbial ecosystem. Dental plaque has an open structure due to the presence of channels and voids. It provides Protection from host defenses, desiccation etc. by production of extracellular polymers to form a functional matrix.1 Dental plaque is a microbial biofilm. Biofilms are…

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Proposal to Cease Testing Blood Donations for CMV

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Status – Public Executive summary (200 words) In response to SaBTO recommendations for replacing CMV seronegative cellular blood components with leucodepleted blood components, an implementation project has been established pending approval from the Board. The proposed implementation date of January 2018 is considered a realist timeframe for this approach. Communication with clinicians…

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Leukemia: Types and Treatment Options

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Background information: Leukemia is a disease that has been affecting society these days. About 119,280 new cases are being found out this year. Leukemia is a blood cancer having to do with leukocytes, or as better known white blood cells, that take over the bone marrow and spread throughout the blood stream in our…

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Pros and Cons of GM Foods: Analysis of Ghana

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     AVAILABILITY OF GENETICALLY(G) MODIFIED(M) FOODS IN GHANA-HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROS AND CONS OF GM FOODS BAWA ABDUL-AZIZ INTRODUCTION Genetically modified foods (GMFs) are an outcome of modification of plants involving movement of genes (DNA), the genetic substances, from a plant or bacteria species, or animal, into another plant species. Scientists are increasingly…

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Stem Cell Research: Pros and Cons

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     George Dion One Method to Cure Them All Imagine a world where the blind can see and where the crippled can walk. Stem cells can make miracles like this a reality. Stem cells are cells which have no specific function, but have the ability to replace any type of cell in the…

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Prostate Cancer: Pathology and Effects

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Megan Rosa Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer, or also referred to as adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is a type of cancer affecting solely men, as it is formed in prostate tissues, which is a gland found in the male reproductive system. It is the second most common cause of cancer-related male mortality, in…

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Protective Effect of Resveratrol | Study

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Experiments Following Fluoride Exposure and Resveratrol Supplementation Effect of resveratrol on fluoride-induced alteration of thyroid metabolic activity The changes in tissue DNA and RNA level of rat thyroid have been represented in Figure 23 and 24. Resveratrol supplementation in fluoride-intoxicated rats restored the decreased DNA content of thyroid by 15.46% (p<0.001) as compared to the treated…

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Use of Protease Inhibitors as Insecticides

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     The Plagues of Egypt are a well-known to many, to send a message to the Pharaoh, the eighth of which saw Moses have God send was a plague of locusts to destroy crops. Luckily those were mere allegorical stories. What is true is that crop yields for ancient societies have always been…

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Protein Denaturation of Egg White and Milk: Experiment

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Introduction: Proteins are the secondary crucial food components while carbohydrates are primary ones. However, proteins must be denatured their natural structure to be unfolded before the digestion. [ 1 ]In the practical, the denaturation of egg white and milk were examined. The white of an egg is a solution of protein in water…

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Protein Determination Lab Report

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Introduction Within protein biochemistry, analytical procedures and experiments have been designed to determine accurate measures of the protein concentration in a sample. A variety of protein assays are being and have been developed to be used in laboratories to examine a solution and to quantify protein from a biological specimen. For certain…

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Protein Folding and Misfolding Mechanism and Principles

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Every function in the living body depends on proteins, and before proteins can carry out any function they must be able to assemble or fold themselves into their three-dimensional structure. Proteins are linear chains of amino acids that adopt unique three dimensional structures (`native states’) which allow them to carry out intricate biological…

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Protein Precipitation & Isolation of Casein from Milk

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     A. Dilshan Jayawickrama Protein Precipitation Methods and Isolation of Casein from Milk  Introduction Protein is one of the major constituent of all living organisms on earth which are made up of in a sequence of amino acid. They are linear polymers of amino acids with high molecular weights which are known as…

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Protein–protein Interface Hot Spots

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     LITERATURE REVIEW Protein-protein interactions Proteins corporate with other proteins to perform biological function. They physically interact with their partners through their interfaces with weak and non-covalent bonds. Understanding how proteins interact is crucial to predict unknown protein-protein interaction (PPI) and can help drug discovery. Thus, to discriminate the interface region from the…

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Protein Purification Methods And Structure Functions Biology Essay

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Protein purification is the method by which particular protein of interest is being separated from a complex mixture. This is a very important process in order to understand the structure, function and interactions of particular protein. First of all separation of protein from the matrix containing it and then its separation…

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Protein Quantification of Almond Milk and Egg White Solutions Utilizing the Bradford Assay

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract   The Bradford assay is a popular method for the quantification of proteins due to it relative sensitivity and ease of performance by cuvette. The assay utilizes the Coomassie blue dye, which binds to basic amino acid residues in its anionic form shifting maximum light absorbance to 595nm. Using the…

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Structure and Function of Proteins

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Whichever essay topic macromolecule you pick, you will need to outline the variety of structures in that family of macromolecules it may be useful to use diagrams for this, you will then need to explain how and where they are used in the cell and, where appropriate link macromolecule structure to function. You…

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Proteins for Xylose Utilization

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in lignocellulosic biomass, comprising up to 35% of the total carbohydrates (Lee, 1997; Saha, 2003; Jeffries and Jin. 2004; Qin et al, 2012). Microorganisms possess three different pathways for D-xylose degradation. The first pathway, present in many bacteria and few fungi, involves xylose isomerase which…

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Protein Synthesis in DNA Processes

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Protein synthesis is the process whereby DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins. It is a very complex and precise process and as proteins make up over half of the dry mass of a cell, it is a vital process to the maintenance, growth and development of the cell. Proteins…

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Proteomics-based Approaches for the Isolation, Detection and Analysis of the Blood Plasma Proteome

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Proteomics-based Approaches for the Isolation, Detection and Analysis of the Blood Plasma Proteome with Specific Interest in Cytokine Activity Involved in SAPHO. 1. Introduction The study of proteomics is essential for our understanding of how cells function. By learning how the proteins within cells interact and respond to certain conditions, allows…

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Application of Proteomics in Disease Diagnosis

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Abstract Introduction Chapter 1: Techniques used in proteomics 1.1 Brief history of the development of proteomics 1.2 Two-dimensional protein electrophoresis 1.3 Mass spectrometry 1.3.1 MALDI-TOF and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry 1.4 Protein arrays 1.5 Protein databases Chapter 2: Application of proteomics in the diagnosis of human disease 2.1 Application of proteomics in the…

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Effect of Oxidative Stress on HAGE Expression

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Cancer is a group of diseases which involves uncontrolled cell growth, metastasis and invasion of cells to other tissues via lymph node or blood. Cancer is caused by many factors such as (i) Chemicals such as tobacco, alcohol, asbestos etc., (ii) Viral infections such as Human Papiloma Virus, Epstin Barr Virus, hepatitis B,…

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PrsA Lipoprotein Promotes Efficient Extracytoplasmic Protein

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     “PrsA Lipoprotein Promotes Efficient Extracytoplasmic Protein Secretion with Possible Beneficial Applications for Medicine and Industry” Abstract This paper explores the essential function of the PrsA-mediated system of influencing the amount and rate of protein secretion from Gram positive cells. During secretion, bacterial proteins face an obstacle course of extremes of charge, pH, unfolding…

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Causes of PSE and DFD Meats and Treatments

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   What is PSE & DFD meat? The terms pale, soft and exudative PSE and dark, firm and dry DFD describe two undesired quality characteristics that can be exhibited in the meat from most species of meat producing animals. However the PSE condition is predominantly found in pigs whilst the DFD condition occurs across…

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Virulence and Pathogenesis Issues

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram negative, motile, aerobic rod shaped bacterium which can occur as singles, in pairs and occasionally in short chains. P.aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism which can proliferate under the sparest conditions such as sinks, toilets, cosmetics, vaporisers, inhalers, respirators, and anaesthesiology and dialysis equipment. Infected patients and staff are…

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Pseudomonas Syringae Caused by Avrpt2

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     ‘RIN 4 Orthologs’ Maheen Rashid Introduction Plants are susceptible to a wide range of bacterial diseases. Depending on the origin of the infection, these diseases can be localized within the stems, leaves or the roots of the infected plant. When a human body is compromised, as a result of it being infected…

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Psychological Effects of Poor Eyesight

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Maya Al Meer   Abstract Some patients suffer from eye diseases such as cataract or glaucoma and many others that cause a decrease in their level of vision making it impossible for them to regain their normal eyesight; this is known as visual impairment. Low vision is a mix of severe visual…

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Atropine Uses and Side Effects

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Atropine is a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine which binds to the muscarinic receptor in order to inhibit the parasympathetic nervous system. It causes a reversible blockade of the action of acetylcholine and it can be overcome by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine at receptor sites of the effectors organ (e.g. by using the…

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Public Health Issues: Type 2 Diabetes

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Abhishek Kumar Is type 2 diabetes a public health emergency? Definition: The term “diabetes mellitus” describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterised by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both . The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term…

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Pulse Oximetry For Anaesthesia In Veterinary Practices Biology Essay

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Pulse oximetry is one of the most commonly used pieces of monitoring equipment for anaesthesia in veterinary clinics today. Using a pulse oximeter allows us to monitor the percentage of haemoglobin (Hb) which is saturated with oxygen in a non-invasive way, allowing us to detect hypoxia before the patient is visibly…

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Lysozyme Enzymes: Purification and Assaying

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract This lab investigates the purification and assaying of lysozyme using size exclusion chromatography and Bradford protein assay. Micrococcus Lysodeikticus is employed in this lab as the substrate for lysozyme and its enzymatic activities are observed under various pH and substrate concentrations for determining the optimal conditions for lysozyme activity. The highest lysozyme…

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Purification of Fructosyl Transferase (FTase)

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp     Introduction Food products are formulated for taste, appearance, cost and convenience of the consumer. The composition of food products that confer a health benefit is a relatively new trend, and recognizes the growing acceptance of the role of diet in disease prevention, treatment and well-being. It is thus becoming increasingly clear that…

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Purification of Mitochondria by Subcellular Fractionation of Mouse Brain

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   This paper explores the hypothesis that there are varying quantities of mitochondria between mutant and healthy organisms. The experimental aim of this investigation was to create a method to obtain a subcellular fraction that was enriched in mitochondria. We initially designed an experiment for the purification of mitochondria from mouse brains…

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Purification of Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if a His-6 tagged recombinant form of Green Fluorescent Protein could be expressed in a pRSETA vector of E. Coli. This was determined through multiple procedures beginning with purifying the sample with Ni +2 agarose chromatography which showcased the relative fluorescent activity of the…

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Renal Dialysis: Biochemistry and Haematology Changes

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   1. The basis of the changes from normal that occur in the blood biochemistry and haematology during renal failure Function of kidneys The kidneys excrete metabolism wastes from the body, e.g. urea. They play an essential homeostatic role by regulating the fluid balance and maintain pH of the blood at a constant level.…

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Qnb And Atropine Binding To Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor Biology Essay

 Reference this Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Using rat brain membranes, buffer, atropine and 3H-QNB you will produce a displacement curve for QNB by atropine, using a filtration method to separate bound QNB from free QNB. Radioactivity on the filters will be measured by scintillation counting and, after correction for counting efficiency, will be converted into molar units…

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Qualitative Tests Used For Carbohydrates Biology Essay

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Carbohydrates are an essential component of our diet and an important source of energy for us. Most of the things generally included in our diet have a large ratio of carbohydrates present. Also the patients suffering from Diabetes excrete huge amounts of sugar in their urine which needs to be estimated. The purity…

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N Acetylcysteine Quality Control

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   N-acetylcysteine (C5H9NO3S Mr 163.2) is the N-acetyl derivative of the naturally occurring amino acid, l-cysteine. The drug occurs as a white, crystalline powder with a slight acetic odor. N-acetylcysteine is freely soluble in water and in alcohol. N-acetylcysteine is commercially available as aqueous solutions of the sodium salt of the drug. It is…

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Quantification of Microbes in Food

Share this: Facebook  Twitter  Reddit  LinkedIn  WhatsApp   Abstract Microorganisms can be found in many food products, but detection and quantification of these microbes could be more easily approximated by standard plate counts of colony-forming units of diluted bacteria sets in plate count agar. It was then hypothesized that the fresh food products would have greater CFU’s per gram than the…

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