points of view when discussing this topic for what has become very sensitive and difficult to find a solution that everyone supports. This research intends to provide an overview of abortion from the ethical-legal viewpoint; it also includes statistics, catholic principles of morality with respect to abortion, and post-traumatic causes of abortion.
Abortion is the spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before the fetus has acquired a sufficiently developed form to survive outside the womb. Induced abortion is the one that has caused a major dilemma in the world because this is the deliberate termination of pregnancy before the fetus is developed. Sometimes abortion is induced at 20 weeks, and has this time the fetus has developed many well-defined bodies and body parts, so it looks just as a human. There are countries like India, China and the former Soviet Union, where abortion has become a practice for birth control.
The U.S. law allows a doctor to kill a baby just before birth and he does not commit a crime. The law says states cannot prohibit abortion and that it is necessary to preserve the health or life of the mother. And in this case, health includes physical, psychological, emotional, family and the woman’s age, as they relate to the welfare of a person. They also justify abortion by saying that this could impose a life and the future of women would be unhappy and psychological damaged by forcing them to take care of the child, and the fact that the child could be born into a family that may be unable to raise it could be worse than an abortion. Therefore, you can now perform a legal abortion in the U.S. for any reason or no reason at any time during pregnancy. According to the law a child who is born and is unwanted by his mother, even after the sixth or seventh month of pregnancy, abortion can be applied.
More than one million six hundred thousand surgical abortions are performed in the U.S. each year. For every three children who are conceived, one dies because of abortion. Ninety two percent of these abortions are for reasons not related to rape, incest or protecting the health of the mother. Until 1988, almost 43% of abortions were second abortions. Three out of four women who have abortions say that a child would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities. U.S. surpasses almost all Western nations in the number of abortions per thousand women of childbearing age. Twenty six percent of all abortions are performed in adolescents 11 to 19 years, 45% of young children who do undergo an abortion without parental consent. Every year there are only 50,000 children to adopt but there are hundreds of thousands of Americans who want to adopt. Adoptions of foreign children by U.S. citizens have steadily increased to over 10,000 in 1987.
This nation has killed more than 30 million unborn children since 1973 when the Supreme Court legalized abortion. This is 20 times the number of Americans who died in the civil war, two world wars and Vietnam, combined. Among developed countries, the U.S. has one of the highest averages of abortions, five times larger than Holland. U.S. has one of the more liberal rules in the world, only Communist China is compared in legal support abortions in any time during pregnancy and for almost any reason.
Of the 1.6 million surgical abortions that are performed annually in the United States, only 1% is held for rape or incest, and only 7% is attributed to threats to the physical or psychological health of the mother. The remaining 92% is made for social, economic or personal, all covered by the definition of “health” of the Supreme Court. About 10% of surgical abortions in the United States are carried out in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, including from 1% to 2% in the third quarter, that is, from 15.000 to 30.000 surgical abortions every year in the last stage of pregnancy.
Studies show that families of more than half of women who abort earn more than $ 30,000 a year, refuting the myth that the United States, most women have abortions because they are poor. Also in a study of post-abortion patients only 8 weeks after an abortion, the researchers found that 44% complained of nervous disorders, 36% had experienced sleep disturbances, 31% had regrets about the decision and 11% had been prescribed psychotropic drugs by their GP. A study covering a period of five years in two Canadian provinces found that the use of medical and psychiatric services was significantly higher among women who had abortions. Most revealing was the conclusion reached whereby 25% of women who had abortions were visiting psychiatrists compared to 3% in the control group. Women who have abortions are significantly more likely than others to require subsequent admission to a psychiatric hospital.
Thirty to fifty percent of aborted women report suffering sexual dysfunction, both short and long duration, beginning immediately after their abortions. In particular may include one or more problems than they are as follows: lack of pleasure in relationships, added pain, aversion to sex or men in general, or development of a lifestyle of promiscuous type.
Researchers have identified a close statistical relationship between abortion and suicide in a study based on records. The identified 73 suicides were associated in the space of one year and pregnancies that ended in a natural way, either by abortion. The average annual suicide rate for women in general was 11.3 for every 100,000. The suicide rate associated with birth was significantly lower. The rates for termination of pregnancy were significantly higher. For natural abortion, the rate was 18.1 per 100,000 and for the induced abortion of 34.7 for every 100,000. The suicide rate within one year after the abortion was three times higher than the overall female rate seven times higher than for women who carry pregnancies to term, and almost twice as high as that of women who had an abortion by natural causes.
Post-abortion stress is associated with an accentuation of smoking. Women who abort are twice as likely to become heavy smokers and suffer the corresponding health risks. Women who abort are also more likely to continue smoking during subsequent wanted pregnancies, with the added risk of neonatal death or congenital abnormality. In addition, the abortion was strongly related with added double risk of alcohol abuse among women. The abortion followed by alcohol abuse is associated with violent behavior, divorce or separation, traffic accidents, and loss of job. The abortion is significantly linked to subsequent drug abuse. In addition to psycho-social costs involved in such abuse, drug addiction is associated with increased risk of infection by HIV / AIDS, birth defects and aggressive behavior.
For some women at least, post-abortion stress is associated with disturbances in food intake such as compulsive eating, bulimia and anorexia nervosa. The abortion is associated with higher levels of depression, violent behavior, alcohol and drugs, pregnancy substitution or replacement, and relaxation of the ties that bind mothers with children born subsequently. These factors are closely associated with the abusive treatment of children and seem to confirm individual clinical assessments linking post-abortion trauma with subsequent child abuse.
For most couples, abortion creates unforeseen problems in their relationship. Couples who have had an abortion are more likely to divorce or separate. Many women who abort develop a greater difficulty in establishing lasting ties with a partner. This may be because the abortion is related to reactions such as low self-esteem, greater distrust of men, sexual dysfunction, substance abuse and increased levels of depression, and anxiety. Women, who have had more than one abortion, which representing about 45% of all abortions, are more probable to require public support because they are also more likely to end up forming single-parent families.
Males also have an important role in abortion. “According to the U.S. Supreme Court, whether he is a husband or boyfriend, the father has no legal right even to be notified prior to his wife or girlfriend obtaining an abortion. The High Court has taken the position that abortion is exclusively a woman’s issue; the woman is to be treated as an autonomous decision-maker. Thus, she not only has a legal right to make the decision on her own, it is assumed that input of husbands or boyfriends is of little importance. This could not be farther from the truth, both in point of law and as an understanding of the situation a woman in a crisis pregnancy is facing. In truth, the father’s attitude is frequently crucial in determining whether a woman has an abortion or carries to term. If the father is hostile or appears indifferent to the pregnancy, then the risk of abortion is substantially increased because the woman perceives that she is abandoned. If the father provides both emotional and economic support for the pregnancy, particularly in a marriage, then the likelihood of abortion is substantially decreased.” (News)
The women who have found it an abortion face an increased risk of repeat abortions in the future. Women who have a prior abortion experience are four times more likely to return voluntarily to terminate their pregnancies than those with no prior abortion history. This increased risk is associated with previous abortion by low self-esteem, a conscious or unconscious desire to carry out a pregnancy. The subsequent abortions may occur because of conflicting desires to become pregnant and have a child and continued pressures in favor of abortion, such as the abandonment by the new partner. In the repeat abortions also realizes some kind of self-punishment.
We find from economic reasons to the defense of individual liberty when we talk about abortion. The abortion faces the ethical principle of respect for life and the right of every woman to choose freely. Today there are two very defined positions on abortion, one for which abortion is a woman’s right, and another defending the unborn, as many people consider that the life of the unborn child is different from the mother, although it depends on her . Most people agree when scheduling the start of human life in the moment of fertilization. The problem arises when scheduling the start of the life of man individually, so this question is not only biological, but also philosophical and theological. According to many people the fetus is not yet a human person, and that it becomes a person at birth, so, according to them, their destruction is not consider a crime or a murder.
There are several positions that agree with the legalization of abortion. One is the right of women to regulate their fertility is higher than the embryo that is not perceived as human. Another is that if abortion is not supported by law, given that we live in a geographical context in which this practice is readily available in our immediate environment, women may achieve higher economic level, while it will not be possible to those of lower economic status or be subjected to risks of clandestine abortion. Also, the consequences for life and health of women can be very serious if the abortion is performed on a non-clinical. And last, many countries will not agree with a law against abortion and those who want to abort will do it anyway.
In addition, there are positions at odds with the legalization of abortion. One is the proliferation of abortion figures. The experience of other countries seems to show that regulation of abortion inevitable becomes a significant increase in the numbers. Once you begin to admit certain types of abortion, it enters a process in which the indications and chronological limits are extended to reach a situation where abortion becomes a practice solely dependent on the desire of women. Another position is the value of human life. Admit the legality of abortion would be a failure of a basic ethical value. If all we supported the abortion which is a means of ending the life of a living, we would not appreciate our own lives and everything we went through this stage where we were inside our mothers. If we supported this may not be as forgiving all those people who have killed people for money.
There are two very important principle Catholic principles of morality with respect to abortion. The first principle says “that any direct attempt on an innocent life as a means to an end – even to the end of saving another life – is unlawful. Innocent human life, in whatsoever condition it is found, is withdrawn, from the very first moment of its existence, from any direct deliberate attack. This is a fundamental right of the human person, which is of universal value in the Christian conception of life; hence as valid for the life still hidden within the womb of the mother, as for the life already born and developing independently of her; as much opposed to direct abortion as to the direct killing of the child before, during or after its birth. Whatever foundation there may be for the distinction between these various phases of the development of life born or still unborn, in profane and ecclesiastical law and in certain civil and penal consequences, all these cases involve a grave and unlawful attack upon the inviolability of human life.” (The catholic teaching of abortion) And the second principle states that “every human being, even a child in the mother’s womb has a right to life directly from God and not from the parents or from any society or authority. Hence there is no man, no human authority, no science, no medical, eugenic, social, economic or moral ‘indication’ that can offer or produce a valid juridical title to a direct deliberate disposal of an innocent human life; that is to say, a disposal that aims at its destruction whether as an end or as a means to another end, which is, perhaps, in no way unlawful in itself.” (The catholic teaching of abortion)
Abortion can be avoided if we look for the right help. There are around 3,000 service centers in the nation working to help women seeking an alternative to abortion. These centers provide a variety of services including prenatal care, health care for mother and newborn, referral services, professional counseling and adoption. More than 400 such centers now provide professional counseling to help women who suffer post-abortion syndrome. Also, there is a great demand for children to adopt. There are at least four families waiting to adopt every child that is available. Every year there are only 50,000 children available for adoption but there are hundreds of thousands of Americans who want to adopt.
The abortion issue has no solution yet, and probably never will have; it is difficult to fix something that puts into question the most valuable of man, LIFE. It is clear therefore that the abortion issue will remain a dilemma with no easy solution. It is very important to educate youth and adolescents from the point of view of sexuality to learn to respect it, this education should be given to both men and women, because the design involves two people who should be aware of your body and mind for then not having to resort to a dehumanizing and traumatic as opposed to life as is abortion. Also, it is clear that the most appropriate in the abortion issue is prevention.