Knowledge Based Article
Keywords- Internet of Things,Sensors, Circuit, Software,Hardware (key words)
I. Introduction (Breif Rewiew)
Internet of things revolves around the connection of devices and the communication intersected between them. It includes devices from smartphones to wearable items like smart watches. These devices analyze information given to them, which creates an action for the device to perform. The Internet of things provides the ability to share information and automatically respond without the need of human direction. This will result in which information and communication systems are embedded into our environment and will also result in enormous amount of data stored and processed using Cloud storage. Networks like Wi-Fi and 4G/5G are integral parts of IoT as these wireless networks will be able to connect everyday objects and embed intelligence into everyday life. The development of IoT has come about with use of sensors, analytics and visualization tools, which combined with networks helps to create an IoT device. The device communicates with a platform integrating the data and it is based on the sense, communication and how different devices interact and collaborate. For example a smart phone can track the users location, if your moving and even what you are saying.
An innovative device like a smart bracelet tracks your steps, your activity, sleep and even releases sounds like a wake up alarm. In the next wave of computing the Internet of things will be involved in everyday life for example turning heating on and off and this can even be performed even when no one is present at the house via an app. Also IoT can be used to keep an individual safe a lot of fires have been caused in homes due to switches being left on, using a device even when your not home can prevent incidents like this and show how efficient these devices are. They can also be used for things to help with safety like a doorbell which tracks motion so you can check from anywhere if someone is by your front door, a built in camera to see who visitors are, and also a microphone to communicate with visitors even if your not home. Most of these devices need authentication in order for the device to process and complete its task, so this helps to secure your home.
Internet of things is the next wave in computing, by 2020 it is estimated that there will be up to 21 billion connected devices. Smart environment applications will be from future research and development trends. This will include smart homes, retail, cities, agriculture and transportation. All these will affect impact on mobility, productivity, pollutions and services in terms of community services and government inhabitants. Smart cities be most and time effective easy to manage and collect data. Will have information gathering services such as surveillance cameras and Control of home equipment like heating, fridges and washing machines etc. will allow better home and energy management. Sensors will be replaced by wireless systems giving flexibility to make changed to the setup whenever required. Automatic behavior analysis and event detection will be expected in the next decade. Smart home lighting systems even coffee makers will all collect data on your habits and pattern of usage. Voice devices recording what you say and storing it in cloud this is called machine learning. These computers are programmed in a way that focuses on the data they receive.
II. Redisign of home fire alarm system
Truth table for Logic gates
Justification of logic gates
I have created a logic diagram circuit and a truth table to show the redesign of the fire alarm system. The logic gates required for this redesigned 5 parameter are an XOR gate, NOT GATE AND OR GATE .THE XOR gate is required for the moisture sensor this is because for the client requirement ‘the system should not alert’ this means we need a logic gate that takes input from the heat sensor as true and input from the moisture sensor as true however if there both alerted together the alarm should not go off. So if only one is on it will return a true, which what the XOR logic gate does. The NOT gate is required to alert whenever the battery gets low on power as the NOT gate outputs a true when the input is false. Moreover the OR gate is required as it is the only gate that will ensure the systems will alert when either one of the conditions are detected and resulting in the alarm to sound.
Boolean Expression: Q = A+(B ⨁C) + đ
III. Keypad Operated Door System
Truth Table for Key operated door system
Justification of Logic Gates and Truth Table
I created a logic diagram for the key presses. It will use an electronic memory chip to store the data. It useful as whenever someone does similar key presses it can check if it recognizes it. This helps to save time as it can use the output stored which saves time as it doesn’t need to go through the whole process to authorize the individual as it recognizes the keys typed in. it can also save memory for example if you keep pressing the keys incorrectly it will be stored in the memory however if it recognizes it before it will not use all the memory up. This also saves power source as it doesn’t have to go through the whole process to calculate the response as it already got it in memory. If system wants to be replicated you can use the same data stored and you don’t need to rewrite the whole system as if you already have it saved in the memory chip.
IV. Solution for key operated system
I have produced a circuit configuration diagram using the application Fritzing. I have included three inputs, which are represented by speakers as the present time, incorrect codes and incorrect keys. I have also used a speaker to represent the output and also a 9V battery to represent the power source, I have used one AND gate for the present time and incorrect codes so they both can be used for the lock to open. This is also so the user can still access the door even if they might have accidently got the combination wrong. I have also used two NOT gates so the user is rejected when entering the wrong code. This makes it easy for the device to recognize old key presses and instantly reject anyone trying to tamper with the key lock. Furthermore I have used two NOR gates so the keypad either reject incorrect keys and you can press the correct one and has access.
From the truth table I have produced I have come top realize that you can produce a circuit using by using a simple 3 input NOR gate. A software solution can be used for example Arduino or Raspberry pi which can recognize the functionality by using a controller with 3 inputs and one output. However in terms of commercially using these products companies are not allowed and have to create their own software, these can only be used for educational purposes. A software solution would be the best for this using the following pseudo code:
Read in A B & C
If all A,B & C = 0
Else Close Lock
The advantages of using a software solution are that you can constantly keep updating software without having to manual go through every device this makes it more time convenient and efficient. Software can also be easily modified and tested is a simulation environment.
V. Advancements of Trytech
Tri tech can advance for example a camera system for the front door alarm so the user can check the cameras if any motion in sensed. Also including a system that had a remote latch would be beneficial with people who have disabilities.
Alarm systems will change in the near future because of technological advancements. In order to improve Trytech’s current alarm we can add extra features like battery back ups or battery alerts to let the user know when the battery is low and how much power is left. We could also include for the alarm system to be connected to the users mobile phone this would help the user to perform action even if they are not at home. This can help the user know from their phone, which fire alarm in the house has gone off and where the fire is so they can take, action. This would also help if the fire alarm goes of accidently as you would be able to disable the alarm, and for certain amount of time for example if your cooking. This will also make it easier that you are alerted about danger even if you’re not home or on holiday. The alarm can also be interconnected so everyone in the house has access to the app and can perform actions to prevent harm. The alarm will also be self-sufficient so it will take out safety checks throughout the days to ensure it is working. The alarm can also include the ability to connect to smart homes devices like Google home or Alexa making it easier to access everything in your home from one application. Also the option of having a voice calling out which room the fire is in, is more efficient that a simple alarm sound this will be optional to the users preferences. In order to improve Trytech’s current alarm system we can introduce fire alarms that are wireless, this will help for temporary installations like exhibitions and entertainment as they may only require a fire alarm for a limited period of time and it can be impractical to use a wired system. Also if a building is reconstructed wireless alarms can be easily moved around the building, moreover historical buildings like castles can be dangerous to install alarms in therefore wireless alarms would be more beneficial.
in order to improve Trytech’s keypad system, I have researched the following innovative ideas. The keypad will be an LED keypad which has softer buttons than normal keypads so the user can swiftly enters keys, also the LED screen will be crucial for opening the lock in dark as manual keypads don’t have lights. The lock system will also include alternative ways to open the door for example key cards, tags, remote fobs and even your smartphone. the door lock will also activate an alarm if it is tampered with. It will also be easier to open your front door if you have your hands full as the door lock will detect the proximity of how close your phone it to the door making it easier. The app on the smart phones can also alert the home owner who has been in and out and this can be very efficient for parents to keep an eye on their children, the app will also alert you every time someone enters the home in real time. The user will also be able to set times for when the door should automatically lock if you forget to lock the door behind you. Privacy settings will also allow the homeowner to block or delete people even with a passcode from coming in. The app will also make it easy for you to send temporary pins or activations for the door to open to let friends in etc. the lock will also include security measure so if the pin is entered incorrectly the user will be blocked out and this will also be logged for the home owner to see. Also if someone has forgotten their passcode then the homeowner could let them have access if they are not home. I believe my solution for both the alarm system and the key operated system are the most efficient as they take into the user requirements and also future advancements in technology, my solution is practical and also helps the user to save time and easily let them access there systems from anywhere in the world at anytime
- Securing the internet of things – Authors: Li Shancana, author Xu Li D
- The internet of things- Authors Bunz, Mercedes Meikle, Graham
- In text: future predictions of IoT – Available at: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1207.0203.pdf
- In text: Predications on the future of IoT- Available at : https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-iot-5-predictions-for-the-future-of-iot.html