Fig 1: Survey Report……………………………………………………………………………………..7
Fig 2: Survey Report ………..…………………………………………………………………………..8
Fig 3: Carpool Incetive…………………………………………………………………………………10
Fig 4: Use Case Diagram………………………………………………………………………………13
Fig 5: Schedule Diagram………………………………………………………………………………15
The California State University Fullerton alternative transportation programs are considered successful by many comparable institutions throughout the nation. Our impressive ratio of seven people to every one parking space is evidence of this success; most universities operate with a ratio of three or even two people to every one parking space. Even so, some elements of the CSUF alternative transportation program are underused. This proposal focuses on the Android Carpooling Application, which we feel has the potential for increased participation.
The university population is expanding. Parking accommodations are difficult now and face further challenges in the future. According to Department of Transportation (DTP) staff, violations, complaints and aggressive behavior are responses occurring on a regular basis by drivers who come into conflict with the parking limitations. Many campus drivers park in the surrounding neighborhoods, to the chagrin of residents and the loss of revenue for DTP. With the growth of the campus population arises a need for land, not only for parking, but also for other forms of infrastructure. There are many environmental, health and societal costs involved with driving, which can be lessened by increasing the use of alternative transportation. To lessen the costs of parking expansion and improve the existing situation, changes are necessary.
One response lies in the university’s proposed construction of a new parking deck. This structure and any future additions will be costly to the University in a variety of ways, particularly financially. The structure has the possibility to either consolidate or add to existing parking space. If the university chooses the latter option, the decreased stress and hassle associated with finding parking may encourage some university members to drive. Being a large institution, any changes made within the CSUF have significant repercussions on the surrounding community. If a large parking structure is constructed and the rate of driving increases at the university, then the City of Fullerton will be affected. While our suggestions may not create the space of a new parking deck, I would like to propose the enhancement and publicity of alternative transportation options as a means of “creating” new parking spaces and reduced traffic congestion.
During winter and spring terms of 2017, the Campus Alternative Transportation and Sustainability team, under the direction of the Environmental Studies Program’s Service Learning Program, has been involved in a campaign to promote all forms of alternative transportation on campus. The research and experience we have garnered during this time has provided us with insight into the mechanics of university transportation and possible innovations. This proposal is the culmination of our work and provides a strategy for enhancing the existing carpool program with the goal of increasing its use by the campus community.
Currently, the carpooling program at the Cal State Fullerton has a limited scope. Few people purchase carpool permits, which are made available to all faculty, staff and students at a discounted price. For the 2016-17 academic year, the price of a carpooling permit was $180, as compared to the price of a standard faculty and staff permit or a student permit at $229. In
the same year, the university had 32 registered carpools. Carpools are only available to groups of three people, two of whom must be university affiliated. Priority parking exists on Nutwood Avenue for carpools that arrive on campus before 9:30; however, this opportunity remains underused and unknown to most of the campus population. In fact, it seems that the policy remains unclear even to staff who manage the parking kiosk. Student carpool permits are only valid in student lots, limiting the appeal of carpooling to students. Moreover, as seen above, the difference between the student standard permit and carpool permit price provides little incentive for carpooling. The Guaranteed Ride Home program exists to encourage the use of alternative transportation by providing a backup ride in emergency situations to those who carpool. However, the program is available solely to faculty and staff and is also under-publicized. According to a 2017 survey of faculty and staff transportation habits, 66 percent of those surveyed feel that they are not very informed about the carpooling program. While the carpooling program has the potential to reduce vehicle traffic on campus, the proposed changes might allow for a better fit between the program and the needs of the campus community.
With this proposal, our goal is to set in motion the transformation of the existing carpool program into a highly utilized and popular form of alternative transportation, comparable to the current university bike and bus programs.
Our basic objective is to increase the use of the carpooling program through improved publicity, incentives, convenience and flexibility. Specifically, I propose the facilitation of carpooling through the installation of a CSUF-only, Android Carpooling Application that allows people to connect with carpooling partners. Additional flexibility could be attained through the implementation of parking pass packages with a range of options for those who wish to carpool.
The proposed strategies for achieving our goals are based on research conducted over the past two months. We modeled the objectives and strategies on successful and innovative carpooling programs at other institutions, including Georgetown, University of Southern Maine, Duke and various businesses. Further background information was gleaned from online and library print sources, as well as personal interviews. The variety of sources cited reflects an attempt to incorporate the full spectrum of opinions and expertise about carpooling.
We believe that we are at an opportune point in time to enact the above-mentioned changes. Aside from the challenges associated with parking at the university, the proposed construction of the parking deck, if carried out, will result in a drastic parking pass fee increase. This preliminary change in price would create a key chance to promote an improved, more appealing carpool program.
By carpooling, a person is benefiting the university, themselves, their carpool partners, and the environment. University, individual and environmental benefits are listed below.
As described above, traffic congestion and parking are two of the most problematic transportation issues at the CSUF. Increased carpooling would lessen the impact of these issues by reducing the number of cars arriving on campus and saving the CSUF money and space dedicated to maintaining and creating new parking spaces. According to Department of Transportation, out of the roughly one million dollars budgeted for parking maintenance; $12,400 goes to the construction and replacement of parking lots. This expense will inevitably increase if a parking structure is constructed to facilitate the need for additional parking spaces. A parking structure of 800 spaces would cost $15,000 per year for maintenance alone. Any reductions in vehicle traffic would therefore have tangible financial benefits for the university.
Carpooling offers a range of benefits to the individual, from relieving stress to saving money. By carpooling, the stresses of driving can be alleviated by sharing the responsibilities and hassles of road congestion, car maintenance, parking or other problems that may arise while driving. Carpooling also minimizes the gas and maintenance costs a single driver will encounter over the course of a year, as shown in the table below. However, for any of these benefits to serve as effective incentives, they must be made known to individual drivers.
Table 1. Monetary Savings from Carpooling
|Money Spent||Vehicles Miles Reduced Per Year||Calculation||Amount Saved|
|On Gas||5,200||at $2.00 a gallon||$520 / year|
|On Car Maintenance||5,200||at 50 cents a mile||$2,600 / year|
|Total||$3, 120 / year|
Figures based on a two-person carpool driving 20 miles round trip, five days a week.
By carpooling, a person makes a lesser contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases, the main anthropogenic cause of global warming, then they would as a solo driver. These substances enter and continually build up in our atmosphere, causing damage to the ozone and increasing the greenhouse effect. Gas emissions and fluid leaks from vehicles are also hazardous to surrounding environments; they contaminate water systems, threaten wildlife, and degrade soil conditions. The following table calculates reduced pollution rates because of increased carpooling. The estimates are based on 100 people participating in carpools, each of which drives 20 miles per day. By participating, only 50 vehicles are on the road, saving the amounts described below.
Table 2. Environmental Benefits of Carpooling
|Vehicle Miles Reduced Per Day||Pollutant||Amount Saved||Pollution or Fuel ConsumptionSaved PerDay||Pollution or Fuel ConsumptionSaved PerYear|
|1,000||Hydrocarbons (Urban Ozone [smog] and Air
|3.5 grams/mile||7 lbs of HC||1,820 lbs of HC|
|1,000||Carbon Monoxide (Poisonous gas)||25 grams/mile||55 lbs of CO||14,300 lbs of CO|
|1,000||Nitrogen Oxides (Urban ozone [smog] and Acid Rain)||1.5 grams/mile||3 lbs of NOx||780 lbs of NOx|
|1,000||Carbon Dioxide (Global warming)||1.0 pound/mile||1,000 lbs of CO2||260,000 lbs of CO2|
|1,000||Gasoline||0.05 gallon/mile||50 gallons gasoline||13,000 gallons
Figures based off of fifty carpools made up of two people, driving 20 miles round trip, five days a week
In a 2017 survey of CSUF faculty and staff transportation use, only 7% reported carpooling as their primary means of transportation. This section of the proposal seeks to clarify the possible explanations for the low number of carpoolers at the CSUF. There are several general factors, not unique to the CSUF, that present barriers to carpooling. Likewise, aspects of the CSUF carpooling program may impede its use. For both the general and structural barriers, there are several solutions that could increase the popularity of carpooling at the CSUF.
Many of the arguments for driving alone to work are the same, regardless of city, workplace, or type of employment. The top five reasons cited by CSUF faculty and staff for driving alone to campus are (in order of most to least often cited): convenience, distance, the need to transport others, requiring the car for work, and flexibility. Because of irregular hours and a changing daily schedule make regular carpooling a “challenging task.” Though carpooling has many benefits to the user, the transaction costs of finding and organizing a carpool are often daunting enough to discourage a potential carpooler.
In the 2017 survey, it was found that the majority of CSUF faculty and staff are not very informed about incentives to carpoolers, which include priority parking and cheaper parking permit rates. When asked about their knowledge of the existing DTP carpooling program, 66% of respondents said they were “not very informed,” 22% said they were “somewhat informed,” and only 12% said they were “well informed.”
The response of faculty and staff about their knowledge of the existing carpooling program is illustrated in the figure below:
Figure 1 Survey Report
While incentives such as priority parking spaces and discounted parking permit rates are available to carpoolers at the CSUF, the possibility that these incentives are inadequate for encouraging carpooling should be considered. The analysis of the previously mentioned 2017 survey compared the CSUF with the City of Irvine. One program offered by the City of Irvine is the Rideshare option, a discounted parking rate for carpools of two people. Below is a chart illustrating the responses of CSUF faculty and staff, when questioned as to the likelihood they would participate in a figure program:
Figure 2 Survey Report
This graph shows that 44% of faculty and staff are either very or somewhat likely to try a Rideshare, indicating that a Rideshare discounted parking pass would be popular among CSUF faculty and staff.
The CSUF pricing on parking permits is likely not prohibitive enough to discourage solo driving, nor the discount for carpooling significant enough to woo potential carpoolers. The City of Irvine, for example, charges a single driver $30-$55 per month, depending on the parking lot, half that cost for a rideshare of two people and offers carpools of three or more people free parking. Parking is significantly cheaper for single drivers at the CSUF and carpoolers of three or more people receive a discounted rate. Although state regulations prohibit the CSUF from giving away free parking, the CSUF can increase the disparity between carpool and standard parking permit rates.
Finally, priority parking for carpoolers is only available in one section of campus. For those who work or have classes on the other side of campus, the current priority parking may not serve as a timesaver.
Our research has shown that institutions with successful carpools implement a program that facilitates carpool groups, is flexible, provides incentives, and is well publicized.
While it is not possible for the CSUF to simplify the complicated lifestyles of the 21st century, we can facilitate the coordination of carpools between the schedules of students, faculty and staff members. It is not surprising that institutions that facilitate ride matching are said to be more successful in recruiting carpools. Our research also shows that “commuters who carpool prefer riding with co-workers – even co-workers they do not know – to riding with total strangers.” We therefore propose the creation of a campus-only online carpool application, which would allow carpoolers to link up with carpooling buddies quickly and to search for the most appropriate carpool. An in-house carpooling application will increase the level of comfort campus users feel about carpooling by allowing them to connect with other campus users.
Currently, Waze Carpool provides carpool ride matching using mobile application. The Waze carpooling Application serves all over USA; it is not CSUF-specific. It may also carry the stigma sometimes associated with public transit (although bus riding is more popular at the university than carpooling). We believe a CSUF-specific Application will be much more successful in creating carpools in the university community than the Waze.
By offering a CSUF-only carpooling Application, the CSUF will provide more opportunities for those who want to carpool and need to relate to other potential carpoolers. We suggest that DTP purchase an Carpooling Mobile Application over the summer so that it may be used during the next academic year.
Our suggested carpooling program offers more flexibility than is currently available. We propose that Carpooling App allow carpooling for varied. This new approach would provide members with a multiple carpool timing and according to schedule of classes. User can setup or request carpooling anytime of the day according to school. Users can share rides and communicate easily with each other, from setting carpool to drop-off.
One of the most important incentives for carpooling is the reduced cost to the user in gas and parking fees. Offering cheap parking to carpools is the best way to convince people to change their commuting behavior. The cost breakdown above shows savings of up to $200 a year per carpooler in parking fees alone if accompanied by a 25% increase in the rate of regular parking permits. We propose a rate increase of 200%, to be applied to the regular parking permit rate incrementally over the next ten years. This change would increase the disparity between the price of carpool and regular parking permits, making carpooling the more appealing option for some users.
Another crucial incentive for carpoolers is priority parking. To address the issue of the many people who work or study far from the current priority parking spots, we propose that DPT create additional spaces across campus for carpoolers. We have highlighted suggested spaces in various campus lots on the map below. We recommend that these spaces be reserved for carpools until 10am, Monday through Friday. After that time, the spaces can be made available for any car with a CSUF parking permit. In addition, we suggest that these spaces be clearly marked for carpoolers. This will not only clarify the policy around priority parking, but will also serve as publicity for the program, particularly if the signs direct people to a phone number or website for more information on carpooling. See below for possibilities for additional carpool parking spaces and for a carpool sign.
Figure 3 Carpooling Incentive
Publicity and education are by far the most labor intensive, yet crucial, elements of successful carpooling programs. Publicity would include outlining the carpooling program and its benefits to the user through various brochures, posters, flyers, and emails. The Earth Week, “One Less Car Campaign,” including an inter-departmental competition and an alternative transportation booth, initiated by the Environmental Studies Service Learning Program, would be taken over by the Carpool Team as a winter and spring term project. Time permitting, the carpool marketing team could publish a carpooling newsletter each term that includes helpful carpooling tips, information on various City of Fullerton construction projects/street closures and highlights a “Carpool of the Month/Term.”
This task is considerably more complicated than the above-mentioned strategies. There is no straightforward way to improve the general attitude towards alternative transportation.
Crucial elements of fostering a carpool community are facilitating and publicly rewarding carpools. Beyond that, commuters who make positive transportation choices, such as carpooling, should be recognized in the university community. A “Carpool of the Month/Term” published in the carpooling newsletter, is one way of recognizing carpoolers. Other carpooling-positive efforts would be bumper stickers that promote carpooling, thank you notes sent to participating carpools, “zip code lunches” for people to meet potential partners, and a free breakfast at the end of the year for registered carpools.
Due to environmental and financial concerns and a lack of space for parking, it is in the best interest of the CSUF to increase the use of alternative transportation to and from the university.
Carpooling is one way to reduce single occupancy vehicles that benefits the CSUF, the user, and the environment. While there are several societal factors that make carpooling undesirable, these barriers can be overcome for some people with the implementation of adequate incentives and a flexible carpooling program that supports the needs of the user. In summation, the strategies that we suggest making carpooling more desirable and convenient are:
Facilitation: Developing android application for carpooling where students, faculty and staff can share rides anytime they want.
Flexibility and Convenience: Users can look for riders and drivers anytime they want and share rides. They can set preference for drivers and riders like male and female. They will be carpooling with people in CSUF which would help alleviate social awkwardness.
Incentives: Providing designated parking fore carpool riders and also sharing helps to reduce cost for gas and maintenance.
As the CSUF continues to grow, we hope that the use of alternative modes of transportation continues to be encouraged, especially among faculty and staff who remain at the University long after students graduate and move on. Creating considerable new incentives for carpoolers at the CSUF while simultaneously renewing the effort to educate campus users about the carpooling program will likely increase the number of carpool on campus. We propose that DTP implement the above suggestions as soon as possible to increase the viability of carpooling and alternative transportation on campus. The CSUF has been a leader in alternative transportation use in the past, and we hope will continue to be one into the future.
01/2019-05/2019 Work Plan
Due to parking and environmental concerns, the Cal State Fullerton would like to decrease the number of single occupancy vehicles arriving on campus daily by increasing the number of carpools. A 2017 survey showed that only 7% of faculty and staff use carpooling as their primary means of transportation to campus, while more than 60% drive alone. The Department of Transportation (DTP) at the CSUF has many programs in place to encourage the use of alternative transportation to campus, including a carpooling program. However, the staff of DPT does not have the time or resources in-house to conduct a broad reaching publicity campaign. In the 2017 survey, 66% of faculty and staff reported that they were “not very informed” about the existing carpooling program incentives. A new Carpool Application will provide the publicity and support needed to enhance the use of the carpooling program at the CSUF.
Proposed Work Program
The Carpool Application will have two modules Drivers and Riders and will be responsible for implementing and promoting carpooling at the CSUF throughout the academic year. Students, faculties and staff will now have easy access to find drivers and riders in route and sharing ride with them. The work will begin in January of 2019 and conclude in May 2019. The specific tasks are described below; more will be added as needed.
Description of Tasks
There will be four components of work for the Carpool Application:
- Design easy access Layout for application
- Developing two modules Drivers and riders.
- Coding backend algorithm for matching carpoolers and setting carpooling
- Develop an interface where drivers and riders can interact
- Application Testing
- Project Report
Figure 4 Use Case Diagram
Component I. Designing Layout
Task 1 – Login and Signup Layout
Developing an User Interface which allows easy signup and login. Signup would include username, password and phone number. Login with username and password.
Task 2 – Drivers and Riders Dashboard
Developing different layout for riders and drivers. Drivers and rider’s dashboard show their scheduled carpooling rides and people on the route they can carpool with. Drivers and riders can set route and timing they are available for carpooling.
Task 3 – Sending and Displaying request
Developing fragments which are easy way to send, display and accept carpooling request.
Component II. Developing Two Modules
Task 1 – Drivers Modules
A Developing separate module for driver where user can schedule when they are available to carpool according to their class schedule. They can set their route and schedule, available seats for carpooling, car details and their personal information.
Task 2 – Riders Module
A Developing separate module for rider where user can schedule when they are in need to carpool according to their class schedule. They can set their route and schedule and their personal information.
Component III. Coding algorithm for carpooling match and Integrating API
Task 1 – Integrating Google Map API
Coding for integrating google maps API for finding route from start to destination. By integrating API application will have access to route which will be followed to destination in best amount of time and the landmark that follows.
Task 2 – Coding Algorithm for matching drivers and riders in timeframe
Backend coding for efficiently matching drivers and riders on their route. Drivers and rider’s routs will be matched, and best suggestion will be displayed for riders or drivers in their route. They can request for carpooling and set carpool.
Component IV. Interface for Drivers and Riders interaction
Even after setting up ride, carpoolers might have doubts, they can interact using a chat interface in the application. They can share their doubts and manage carpooling efficiently.
Task 1 – Developing Chat application
Chat application built where carpoolers can talk to each other and manage carpooling in better way.
Component V. Application Testing
Task 1 – Testing Layout
Testing layout so that it remains constant in all android versions and screen.
Task 2 – Testing Application as whole
Testing application will include signup login activities, Requesting and setting carpooling along with chat application and setting routs.
Component VI. Project Report
Task 1 – Write project Report
Writing and documenting work of project.
Figure 5: Schedule Diagram