Candidate Solutions Section: What is it for?
The objective of DADSS was to save people’s lives from drunk driving related accidents and deaths. These DADSS sensors work by the detection of human breath, sweat, and from the enlargement of human eye pupil (Cornea). This will be a challenging project for automobile companies to accurately design and implant these sensors in customers cars to save their lives. This technology can help many people to drive safely and save their surroundings. According to the department of transportation and homeland security, “All 50 states have now set .08% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as the legal limit for driving under the influence (DUI) or driving while impaired (DWI)”. This project is aiming to save people lives from car accidents due to alcohol. This DADSS sensor system is very sensitive that detect and analyze the alcohol level in the human body to start the car engine by sending the logical signals through the test board by converting the readings of traces of alcohol level in blood or in sweat to relay the car engine. As this the new technology it does have some pros and cons that challenges the electrical, computer, and automobile engineer to works with to save people lives.
This section consists of three broad sub-sections:
- The scope of solutions considered:
How to reduce the number of car accidents that occur by the alcohol or drugs overdose. Modern technology can help to modernize the vehicle to stop the engine if any things went wrong by using the series of computer programs while the driver running the car in unlikely situations. There are many important things that electrical engineer observer and monitor to design this device by test the safety attitude, driving attitude, vigilance, attention, speed sense, direction sense, judgment ability, ability to control the directions of vehicle, and reaction capacities to approve this latest technology that may save thousands of lives in future.
- Explanation of candidate solutions:
C.S. (1):Lane departure warning sensors.
C.S. (2): Automatic brake assist (emergency latch system).
C.S. (3): Blind spot detections sensors installed in the side mirrors.
C.S. (4): Alcohol detection system.
So, by the above candidate’s solutions the best one I pick is the C.S. (4): Alcohol detection system measure the alcohol level in a drivers blood in less a second if it is point (.08) the legal in all 50 states the vehicle car won’t move for the drivers under 21 for whom any amount of blood is illegal the system can be programmed for a zero tolerance policy to get an accurate reliable reading to technologies are being explored a breath based system and touch based system that measure the driver alcohol level very quickly and transfer to the main computer to make decision whether the alcohol level is safe to drive the car.
|This above diagram represents alcohol detector system that analyze and examine the driver alcohol level to start the car engine. The orange round drive on left is the universal alcohol detector which is used in this system. This MQ-3 is very accurate and rapidly send the alcohol traces to the computer its analyze the input and as the output the led and buzzer react as a result car engine won’t start as the signal passes through by the led and buzzer.|
|The above demonstrated the digital concept that how DADSS system works (block diagram)|
Lab analysis performed to check the system accuracy and cost in 2007 by Tesla, Nissan, and Toyota to fulfil the safety requirements that regulates by Department of Transportation
|Sensors||System accuracy||Cost||Lab expert responses|
|Lane departure warning sensors||95% accuracy||Average||Passed and implanting in new car the models above 2013 by above car companies.|
|Automatic brake assist||80% accuracy||High||Under Observation for further evaluations|
|Blind spot detections sensors||95% accuracy||Low||Passed and implanting in new car the models above 2013 by above car companies.|
|Alcohol detection system||90% accuracy||High||Under Observation for further evaluations. But, Tesla and Nissan (China) already implanting this device in their new models above 2015 on the customers demand|
All the above systems are design to avoid specific kind of situations and these are optional safety features that customers request their car deals or companies to customize their vehicles. It may increase the price and vehicle value depend on which car you are choosing.
SCOPE OF SOLUTIONS CONSIDERED
C.S. (1): Lane departure warning sensors:
Lane departure warning sensors was introduced in 2008 by the General Motors to install these sensors in Cadillac and Buick. It was accurate and approved the department of transportation. So, now on all the car companies are introducing this system to new cars as safety feature and depends on the car companies. Lane departure warning sensors is small close circuit device that implant inside the side mirrors that measure the car distance from other cars while the vehicle is moving or changing the lanes. This device continuously sends the reading to the main computer every second and when the other is come close in certain range the warning light on side mirrors starting blinking to notify the drive to maintain the safe distance from other vehicle to avoid the collisions.
C.S. (2): Blind spot detections sensors.
Blind spot detections sensors are also very advance and accurate safety system that works in a same principle as Lane departure warning sensors which measure the distance from other vehicle to avoid the collisions. Blind spot detections sensors were introduced by Volvo in 2010. Blind spot detections sensors are the magnetic sensors with some optical lenses that detect the object distance that install under the sides mirrors but some car companies also implanting these devices on the rear side too to provide more safety. Blind spot sensor sends the signals to main computer about the object motions, distances and speed which supervise by the program to warn the driver about its surrounding by blinking waring light, buzzer sound, and visual display (backup camera) to minimize the risk of collision.
C.S. (3): Alcohol detection system.
Alcohol detection system was introduced by General Motor to implant these sensors in Nissan (China) in 2014 as a new safety feature to decrease the number of accidents and death cause by over drinking or taking drugs. This device is new in car industry so, many other are still working on its accuracy, reliably, and performance to meet all the requirements for safety check according to the rules and regulations direct by the Department of Transportation. Alcohol sensors consist on to sub part called touch and breath-based system technology that explode the level of alcohol in drivers blood to operate the vehicle. First, the touch-based system measure reading from drivers finger tissue because alcohol can only react with certain wavelength of light called spectroscopy. This touch-based sensor located on driver gearshifts. Other, the breath-based sensor located on the driver side steering column that collect the drivers breath and measure the level of alcohol in blood to turn in the car. The touch-based system take reading by analyzing the carbon dioxide and alcohol molecules together by passing to infrared beam that measure the concertation of alcohol on drivers blood. Theses sub sensors works together and transfer the data to main computer. If the measurement is under law regulations the vehicle starts otherwise, the vehicle won’t start if the measurement are more the limits. These sensors are very sensitive easily detect the alcohol vapors.
|Breath based system sensor operation close up and chemical reaction behind the process to collect the accurate results.||Touch based system sensor that analyze the driver finger tissue to collect the traces of sweat for BAC level in blood by evaluation the wavelength technique.|
Viable solutions you chose to exclude:
The reason to select this option because to reduce the accidents and deaths that cause by the over drinking and over dosing the drug. Many people violate the law and went to jail for drunk drink. The idea for implanting the alcohol sensor detection system is great because we can save many lives by this modern technology. I think as the time passes government should make this system as part of required safety feature in cars.
Historical solutions no longer considered viable (this could be for health, safety, environmental reasons, etc.)
- Health: By this invention we can saved lives. Reduce the numbers of collision that may cause serious injurious and deaths.
- Safety: Safety is the main key of this project to provide the people good live support and to reduce the risk of collisions while driving the vehicle by using the sample mechanism.
- Environmental safety: By this project we can reduce the injections, deaths, and law sues. These projects are saved for our environment don’t produce any harmful substances or radiative material that can cause any environmental issues.
- “Gleam-in-the-eye” conceptual solutions that could not be achieved with present technology unless a breakthrough occurred
That’s a brand-new idea introduce in 2012 by General Motors to reduce the risk of drunk driving. This main reason to select this project to introduce people with new safety feature that can save lives and people money from law sues and collision. This project is still under observation to test its accuracy, reliability and affordably. All the car companies like Tesla, Nissan, and Toyota are about to implant this device in their new models but only on the customer’s request because it cost extra cost for parts and labor
EXPLANATION OF CANDIDATE SOLUTIONS
When this idea was introduced in 2012 by General Motors, there were many complications and consequences brought to the table by the engineers such as accuracy, reliability, safety, and the system cost. But, after all the test this project pass with great feedback by the higher authorities because it met all the requirements by the government’s policies and regulations. Some simple engineering techniques are used to invent this project by the combing the chemical, computer, and electrical engineering to introduce this mathematical equation that calculate reading to find the concertation of alcohol in blood BAC level.
|Mathematical equation to measure BAC level in blood or breath:
|This above mathematical equation is program in the system to collect the reading in second by the touch and breath-based sensor and combined to generate a unique number the allows that system to pass the BAC level.
(Note: 0.8 is the limit of BAC level that legalized by the law to drive safely in all 50 states with no tolerance).
consistency of tone/ terminology:
The terminology behind this project to provide the people with good quality service in their car with new safety feature with less cost. So, people can beware of this feature as an extra safety feature option according to their needs and budget.
Avoiding Needless Repetition:
Since this project is approved by the higher authorities and government. So, it’s less difficult to impact on. But, all the cautions must be retest again to monitor the system accessibility and output. The most common solutions to implant this sensor in testing cars to test the sensor response and speed. Monitor the sensor in different condition like in lab testing and outside the lab test to get the good measurement of this device. Some laboratories and engineering school did some research on these sensors and the result are very good that may approve this project as live saver for drunk drivers.
Comparative Assessment of Candidate Solutions:
Many tests were performed to test Alcohol sensors by General Motor in 2012. Such a high- and low-level alcohol vapors detections by breath-based system, sweat and blood analysis’s to measure alcohol and carbon dioxide through touch-based system that work by infrared beam light technology to check the wavelength of light emit by the molecules. (This also demonstrated in table 1 listed below).
|Efficiency rate||High more than 90% reported by car companies and customers.|
|Cost/ Affordability||High (extra safety feature installs on customer request).|
|Engineering technique||Basic chemical engineering technique is used to measure the alcohol reading.|
|Repairs||No repairs needed|
|System Stability||High (no flex or jumps, loops)|
|Energy consumption||Very low only need energy when the vehicle is turn on to relay the system check only.|
Driver Alcohol Detection System (DADSS)
The above represent the experiment perform by the General motors on different circumstance such as high, middle, and low BAC level to monitor the sensors responses by each visit cycles.
The above table 3: illustrated the accuracy rate of each function group perform in the above experiment in (table 1). The accuracy of DADSS test in specific rate either high or normal conditions.
Comparing DADSS sensors speed, control, and reaction rate test
Speed-sense: To capture all the possible motions detect by the sensor
The result was unique because when person drunk too much the motion is very low that why the bar is high, and the other two represent the normal condition under 0.8 range.
|Judgement ability: This test was performed to see the sensor ability to reliability on collected reading by the touch and breath-based system sensors.|
Reaction capacity or rate: This time and accuracy record by the sensors to operate and the calculate the result by above mathematical equation.
- Zhao, et al. “Study of the Effects of Alcohol on Drivers and Driving Performance on Straight Road.” Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Hindawi, 23 Feb. 2014, www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/607652/
- Anderson, Alex. “DADSS | Touch-Based Alcohol Detection Technology.” Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety, DADSS, Sept. 2017, www.dadss.org/touch-based-