better methods to use such as giving the child up for adoption.
Definition of an abortion and methods of methods available
Abortion: in the medical world, an abortion is the “premature exit of the products of conception”, this includes the fetus, its membranes and the placenta from the uterus. An abortion refers to losing the pregnancy but it does not state why this happened. If you have a spontaneous abortion it will have the same effect as a miscarriage. Some women who have 3 or more miscarriages is known as habitual abortions.
There are also three main categories of abortions: the type where the doctor kills the baby with tools which goes through the entrance of the uterus into the cervix, the type where the mother is given medication to force her into an early labor where they will deliver the dead fetus and finally the type where they invade the uterus by surgery through the abdomen. There was a sad article that I found where they said that a baby’s heart begins to beat at the age of 18-25 days and they have recordable brain waves at 40 days i.e. 11 weeks, at this stage the baby can also squint, it can swallow and pull their hands into a fist. By this time the baby also has fully developed fingerprints and you can feel it when it kicks, they can feel the heat and see the light around them, they have a sense of touch and can hear the noise around them. And the best is the baby would be the perfect size to fit into an average persons palm, they normally also start sucking on their thumbs and will be about 1 oz and between 2 ½ – 3 inches long.
Miscarriages, also known as spontaneous abortions, are to remove the embryo / fetus by accident of trauma or from natural reasons before around 22 weeks of development, gestation age may vary from country to country. The most common cause of miscarriages is from the chromosomes in the body not replicating the way it has to, but environmental factors can also lead to a miscarriage in the woman. Premature birth is normally from the pregnancy ending before the 37th week of development and then the baby is born alive. The term stillborn fetus is from the baby dying after 22 weeks either in the uterus or when it is being delivered. When people use the terms of stillborn or premature birth it does not normally actually classify as a miscarriage but the terms may have common characteristics.
There is on average between 10 – 50% of all pregnancies is clinically announced miscarriages, but it all depends on the woman’s health and her age at the point. The most common occurrence of miscarriages is at the beginning of the pregnancy and in most cases, “this happens at such an early stage of the pregnancy that the female does not even notice that she might be pregnant. There was a study done on hormones testing ovulation and pregnancies and discovered 61.9 % of the pregnancies were terminated before 12 weeks and that 91.7% of those terminations was done subclinical, this means that the pregnancy was ended and the pregnant woman did not even know it happened. The danger that the pregnancy will end in an unplanned abortion reduces drastically 10 weeks from the last menstruation and from there on (LMP) also known as the Last Menstrual Period. 232 woman who were pregnant at the stage was used in a test “showed virtually complete [pregnancy loss] by the end of the embryonic period” as stated in Wikipedia as the 10 weeks after the LMP, where the miscarriages were only 2 % out of all 232 woman after 8 and a half weeks from LMP. Doctors say that unplanned abortions most commonly take place in the 1st trimester of the pregnancy through “chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo/fetus”, this counting the early pregnancy losses that were sampled as ± 50% in total. Lupus as a vascular disease, diabetes problems related to hormones, infections, uterus abnormalities are all some of the causes that are included that may end in miscarriages. Unplanned abortions has a greater risk of happening due to progressing maternal age and the woman’s previous unplanned abortions, these are the two biggest factors that could cause this. Accidental trauma can also be a cause for unplanned abortions, planned trauma and stress can also cause a miscarriage this is also measured as an unplanned abortion and / or feticide.
There are many ways in which an abortion can be done intentionally. Methods used to have an abortion are mainly dependent on the fetus and embryos age, since the size increases as the fetus / embryo gets older. The preference of method used will depend on if it is legal or not, if it is available in the region and the doctor or patients preferences. Reasons to have an attempted abortion are characterized either as not obligatory or healing. Abortions are referenced as healing medically by doctors when it is done to:
To prevent the woman from dying (saving the pregnant woman’s life)
The conserve the pregnant mother’s mental health or physical health.
To save the baby that would have had to live with any “congenital” disorders that could end up as being fatal or connected to major morbidity
And by carefully reducing the fetuses number to reduce the health risks involved in numerous pregnancies.
When it is the woman’s choice to have the abortion then it is referred to as elective this being when it is “for reasons other than maternal health or fetal disease.”
Non – surgical abortions can be known as “medical abortions” where they use drugs “pharmaceutical medication” and the method is only successful when it is done in the 1st trimester of the pregnancy. These types of abortion include 10% of the abortions done in total in the United States of America and in Europe. Methorexate and / or mifepristone are the combined routine which is followed by prostaglandin. If it is used inside 49 days gestation, plus minus 92 percent undergo non – surgical with the combined routine finished it with no surgery interference. Misoprostol is known to not be as effective when used alone rather than combined routine but you can choose to do it that way. If the non – surgical abortion is a failure, a vacuum can be used to finish the process through surgery.
Within 12 weeks the suction – aspiration or the vacuum is the most often used technique. MVA (manual vacuum aspiration) is made up of the fetus or embryo the placenta and the remaining membrane being removed with suction through a manual syringe, but the (EVA) electric vacuum aspiration method is done with an electric pump. Both methods are analogous, but are not the same when it comes to the instruments they use to create the suction, the time frame that it could be used in the pregnancy, and if it is necessary to dilate the cervix. The mini suction (MVA) and “menstrual extraction” is allowed from near the beginning of the pregnancy, it also does not need to dilate the cervix. The methods used in surgery is also known as STOP “Suction (or surgical) Termination of Pregnancy”. Dilation and evacuation is used from weeks 15 to roundabout week 26 also called D & E. the cervix inside the uterus is opened and gets cleaned out by the use of instruments and suction of surgical equipment, this is also known as D & E. there is also a method used called D & C (Dilation and curettage) this is the second most used technique for abortions, it is a normal procedure done by a gynecologist, which is performed for a wide spectrum of reasons, which could include an examination “of the uterine lining for possible malignancy”, examination of bleeding and abortions. Emptying the uterus walls with a curette is a method called Curettage. The WHO (world health organization) suggests a procedure known as Sharp Curettage, only when the MVA is not available. First trimester abortion methods are called D and C, the suction curette but it is all just euphemisms. In the second trimester there has to be other methods used than in the first trimester.
Inducing premature delivery may be done with prostaglandin; this may be followed by injecting high solutions of urea and / or saline into the amniotic fluid. IDX (intact dilation and extraction) is used after week 16 of the growth period, IDX is also called intrauterine cranial decompression, and this involves crushing the baby’s head before it can be removed from the uterus. IDX is known as “partial-birth abortion,” this method has however been banned from the United States. There is a method called a hysterectomy abortion, it is also much related to the c – section and needs to be done when under general anesthesia. A hysterectomy abortion needs a smaller cut than in a c- section and can be performed till late in the pregnancy. The heart of the fetus /embryo can be stopped as phase one of the procedure or the abortion in week 20 to 23 of the growth phase so make sure that the baby will not be born alive.
“Soviet poster circa 1925, promoting hospital abortions. Title translation: “Abortions performed by either trained or self-taught midwives not only maim the woman, they also often lead to death.”
In history there were many herbs used to induce abortions and were used as folk medicine. This medicine can lead to very serious consequences and may even be lethal just like having many organ failures and will not ever be suggested by any physicians. Trauma to the stomach is sometimes done to cause abortions. If the force to the stomach is great enough it may cause very serious problems in the intestines but it might not always lead to a miscarriage. In certain countries it can lead to criminal charges if either deliberate or accidental attempts are made at an abortion. Using household materials such as a hanger or knitting needle is not often encountered in 1st world countries where it is legal to have abortions and is freely available.
Estimation was made in 1995 that more than 46 million abortions were done across the world. 56% of these abortions were done in countries where it is legal to have an abortion but the other 44% was done in places where abortions are illegal. Netherlands has the lowest number of self induced abortions at 10.6 in each 100 people then it is Belgium with 11.2 out of a 100 but countries such as Russia has the most with 62.6 in 100 people then second most is 43.7 out of a 100 people at Vietnam. In the world there was a ratio of 26 out of 100 pregnancies that is known but it excludes all miscarriages and stillbirths.
Pro-choice activists near the Washington Monument at the March for Women’s Lives in 2004.
Legislation regarding abortions
In South Africa it is only legal to get an abortion in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of the pregnancy but on request it is only available in the 1st trimester of the pregnancy. Having abortions was allowed to a very limited few until 1997 when the law of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act (Act 92 of 1996) was created.
Statistics show that 54% of people in SA believe it is always wrong to have an abortion and 70% of SA believes it is wrong to terminate a pregnancy simply because the parents do not have the financial security to support an extra child. In SA, a female no matter her age may get an abortion with a simple request and she does not have to state a reason if she is not over 34 weeks pregnant. If the girl is under 18 she is advised to consult her parents but it is not compulsory. If the woman is married it is advised to inform the husband/partner but it’s again not compulsory the exception of woman who has been in a coma or is mentally unstable has to have the consent of a guardian or parent.
International status of abortion law
Legal on request
Legal for rape, maternal life, health, mental health, socioeconomic factors, and/or fetal defects
Legal for or illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, fetal defects, and/or mental health
Illegal with exception for rape, maternal life, health, and/or mental health
Illegal with exception for maternal life, health, and/or mental health
Illegal with no exceptions
Varies by region
Alternatives available if you don’t want to abort.
If you give it up for adoption:
You can carry on with your life the way you did before you fell pregnant
You don’t have to take care of the baby
You don’t have to worry about finding people to take care of the baby or missing out on the things you want to do
When you’re reminded of the baby you can be assured that it is not cut up or dead but with a happy family.
You can be assured that you gave another family the gift of life which they could not get themselves.
If you get an abortion:
You can still go on with your life the way it was before
You still don’t have to take care of an unwanted baby
You will not have any good memories of the baby or ever wonder how it is doing.
You can’t ever take back the baby, it might not seem that way but this choice will have a huge effect on your life
“A complete spontaneous abortion at about six weeks from conception, i.e. eight weeks from LMP”
History, debates and opinions on abortions
There are sources that show that abortions were even done in early history as stated in Wikipedia. People found proof that states that unwanted pregnancies had numerous ways of being taken care of, these methods included taking herbs that would cause a miscarriage, using sharp objects to obviously cut the fetus out, then also putting pressure on the abdomen and loads of other methods.
In the times of ancient Greece, the physicians said that no doctor was allowed to help a woman get an abortion through “pessary”. Soranus was a physician who started the work of gynecology, he told woman that if they wanted to get a self induced abortion they should ride animals such as horses, lift very heavy objects and even do exercise that would take up a lot of energy and jumping a lot would be physically damaging to a pregnant woman. He gave woman numerous tips for “herbal baths” that they could take, pessaries and “bloodletting” which would help speed up the abortion period, but he stood strongly against anyone ever using sharp instruments to create a miscarriage since it could be very damaging to theorgans if it is not used the right way.
“Pro-life activists near the Washington Monument at the annual 2009 March for Lifein Washington, DC.”
People believe that the ancient Greek people used silphium to help create an abortion as a method of a contraceptive. These methods did not always work as effectively and did not go without a big risk to the person using it. “Tansy and pennyroyal,” is examples of poisons considered as herbs which is known to have very serious risks involved but was still used as a method of self inflicting miscarriages.
In the medieval era, the physicians of the Islamic countries had documentations of details and lists of methods used for birth control, these also included abortifacients, the usefulness and occurrences. At the time there were also many contraceptive methods used and listed in medical journals of that era like the physician Avicenna, who listed 20 methods in “the Canon of medicine” in the year 1025 and another was Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi who listed 176 methods that could be used in his book “Hawi” in the 10th century, this was all matchless in the medicine used in Europe in the 19th century. In the middle ages, abortions was seen as normal and they did not have any laws preventing a person from having one. In the medieval times there was a female physician, Tortula of Salerno, she gave numerous methods for the “retention of menstrua,” which was the code used at times for premature abortions. Pope Sixtus V(1585–1590) was known as the first pope that stated that abortions was murder no matter what stage the pregnancy is at.
“”French Periodical Pills.” An example of a clandestine advertisement published in an 1845 edition of the Boston Daily Times.”
Even though abortions were banned in the 19th century in the US and the UK it continued as it was advertised along with all other services in the Victorian ages. The 20th century brought the Soviet Union in 1919, Iceland in 1935 and then finally Sweden in 1938 to be the first countries that legalized some or all of the abortion methods. Then in 1935 in the Nazi part of Germany the law came in allowing abortions for the people considered as “hereditarily ill,” but woman who were pure Germans were strictly forbidden from having ant abortions of any kind at all. In the history as long as there has been abortions, it has been the cause of loads of debating, arguing and activists. A person’s personal opinion on ethics, morals, philosophy, biology and the laws issues is mostly due to the person’s value system. Pro-choice is the most common position, which is the state of being for abortions of any kind. A combination of morals and beliefs about the ethical scope and proper extent of the authority of the government in the policy of the public are believed to be the reason for a person’s opinion on abortions. Debates caused by abortions especially ones about the law on abortions are often “spearheaded by groups” who are advocating the two opinions. The pro-life groups in the US are people who are either for legal restrictions on abortions or totally forbidding it by law and then pro-choice groups are for the legalization of abortions no matter the situation, you have the choice. In general pro-life people believes that by having an abortion you are murdering a human baby which has the right to live since that fetus is already a little person. You have the reproductive rights and with this it is your own choice to have the baby or to have an abortion is the believes of the pro-choice people. To the public and private debates, the arguments that are stated for or against abortions are focused on the moral acceptability of a self induced miscarriage or to the laws giving abortions permission or restricting it.
Some debates is also aimed at if the woman that wants to get an abortion should have to get concent from other people in their lifes like a minor should ask her parents, a married woman should ask her husband or partner, or just a plain pregnant woman should ask the father of the child. In america in 2003 a servy was done about “legalized mandatory spousal notification” 79% of all the males are in favor of “legalized mandatory spousal notification” and 67% of female responses were for it, but it came out that overall 72% of all people were for this and 26% of all people are against this.
There were many questionnaires and interviews done all over the world to discover the people in the public’s opinion on the issue of abortions, of this the results they received were different from place to place, the countries and to the national regions, this all varied on the different parts of the issue at hand.
There was a survey done in 10 different countries of Europe in 2005 which was to examine the peoples different attitudes with regards to abortion, the survey asked the people taking the survey if they approved with the statement that, “If a woman doesn’t want children, she should be allowed to have an abortion”. In The Czech Republic had the highest rank of approval at 81% of all people asked and at which Poland they had the lowest approval at 47%.
“Histogram of abortions by gestational age in England and Wales during 2004. Average is 9.5 weeks.”
“Abortion in the United States by gestational age, 2004. (Data source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)”
2001 the same survey was done in Canada, North America, to ask the Canadian people in what circumstances did they believe that abortions should be legal, responses shows that 32% believed that abortions “should be legal in all circumstances”, 52% said it “should be legal in certain circumstances”, with the last 14% said it “ should be legal in no circumstances”. The same survey was done in 2009 where they asked people in the U.S. about their personal opinion, with 18% saying that abortions “should be legal in all circumstances”, 28% stated that the believe that abortions “should be legal in certain circumstances”, 16% thinks that abortions should be illegal in all circumstances and 28% said it should only be illegal in some cases. Mexico in 2005 had the biggest difference in believes with 73.4% believing that abortions shouldn’t be legal and only 11.2% believing it should be legal.
As a survey stated in 2003, done in Argentina/ South America that 30% of them says that abortions should be allowed no matter the situation, 47% said it should be done in some cases and 23% that it should never be allowed no matter what the situation might be. There was a survey done in Brazil regarding the abortion laws and discovered that 65% of Brazilians says that abortions “should not be modified”, 16% believes abortions should be prolonged “to allow abortion in other cases”, 10% say abortions should be legalized and only 5% were not sure. Columbia was surveyed in 2005 and found out that 65.6% of the people who were asked said abortions should stay illegal, a small amount of 26.9% says abortions should be made legal and only 7.5% said they don’t know.
Unsafe abortions and methods used.
When a girl or any other female is looking for a way to get out of their situation (being pregnant) they tend to turn to alternative, risky methods, above all when the access they need or want regarding abortions is banned from that country.
WHO, the (World health Organization) stated that abortions are defined as unsafe abortions when it is “a procedure … carried out by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards, or both.” “back-alley” abortions are considered the most common term used to describe unsafe abortions. These procedures can be done by a person who does not have any medical training, a professional health bringer that is doing his/ her business in unsuited circumstances and sometimes these procedures are even done by the woman herself.
There is still a health distress in the public regarding the situation with insecure abortions today because of the harshness and of occurrences that continues to increase, the biggest distress is the complications involved like incomplete abortions, ‘sepsis, hemorrhage and damage to internal organs’. The WHO has made estimation that there is more than 19.000.000 occurrences of unsafe abortions all over the world every year, and 68000 of the 19000000 will have the woman’s death as the outcomes. The complications in abortions that is unsafe is estimated around the world as roughly 13% of all the maternal mortalities, these include the provincial percentages of 12% for Asia, 25% for the Latino Americans and 13% in the Sub –Saharan Africa. The study done in 2007 by The Lancet discovered that even though the world wide abortion rate has decreased from 45.6 mil in 1995 to 41.6 mil in 2003, of the abortions done in 2003 a total of 48% of these were unsafe. The physical health teachings, planning to have families and taking better care of health in general in the time before, during and after an abortion has been planned to tackle the occurrence.
Khokhar and Gulati has stated that the females in 3rd world countries or poor areas in India has effectively induced abortions by means of these methods:
Massaging their abdomens
Eating animal bone marrow soup
Picking up heavy objects
Eating henna powder dry
Eating carrot seed soup
There have been numerous observations made and wide spread methods recorded on self induced abortions. Several methods of the following which are stated are considered as life threatening or just very bad for the health of the woman:
Massaging the abdomen when pregnant
Very hard work that is planned to create a miscarriage
Getting hit, kicked or any other damage done to the stomach
Trying to remove the fetus with a object in the shape of a hanger and putting it into ones uterus through the cervix
Trying to pierce the fetus with a long needle or long, sharp object that enters into the uterus through the cervix
Putting a pipe or any tube like object into the uterus through the cervix to create a method of suction
Drinking excessive amounts of vita c, pennyroyal and anything else that can lead to a self induced miscarriage
Applying any substance that is known to lead to a miscarriage ( in the old days woman believed in using coke for this method even though it is highly doubtful that it will lead to a miscarriage)
Putting pessaries into the uterus
Hypothermia, lowering the body temperature lower than the normal body temperature by getting exposed to very cold weather
In the cases regarding the woman putting sharp or dangerous devices into the uterus normally leads to septicemia, which is a general disease that comes from “pathogenic organisms” or poisons in the blood stream (also known as blood poisoning). When a woman ingests hazardous chemicals it may have poisoning effects. When receiving pressure to the stomach (punches, kicks, etc.) via someone else or by the woman herself it may lead to injury to the internal organs as well as the fetus. In addition there are less hazardous ways, such as heavy lifting, massaging the abdomen and drinking moderately risk – free substances that is meant to end in a miscarriage but are not as effective as it can be the result of developing birth defects in the fetus rather than a miscarriage. There is a practice in foreign countries such as Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines and in Indonesia where they perform traditional abdomen massage abortions. “The practice of abortion was revolutionized at virtually the same moment that the laws were revolutionized, through the widespread introduction of suction curettage in 1970. … Even without a suction machine, a simple combination of catheter and syringe can produce enough suction to carry out a safe early abortion. As for the self-induced abortion, by thrusting a coat hanger or other dangerous object into the womb, this will also be a thing of the past.”
“A vacuum aspiration abortion at eight weeks gestational age (six weeks after fertilization).
1: Amniotic sac
3: Uterine lining
6: Attached to a suction pump”
“Example of therapeutic abortion in a 44-years old pregnant female diagnosed with carcinoma in situ of cervix (early stage cancer of womb). Total removal of uterus (womb) with fetus in situ was considered to be inevitable for future health of the woman. The fetus was still alive at time of removal.”
I believe that it is a person’s own choice if they do want to have an abortion or not at the end but I myself will not have an abortion it is too inhumane for my taste. If you really don’t want to have children then sticks to contraceptives and condoms and just avoid falling pregnant to start with.