Personal Development for Leadership and Strategic Management
1.1 Analyse the knowledge and skills in leadership and strategic management which are required to support the creation and achievement of organisational vision and strategy
According to Cohen (2017) leadership requires playing strengths in the most productive way and at the same time addresses weakness in the most efficient way. Hence, leadership with an ability to identify organisational strength is likely set the direction which leads to success, while taking care of weakness. But, Walker-Leidy (2017) suggested leadership is the ability to foresee problem and providing solution. Hence, the leadership focus is suggested to be on problem and not setting strategic direction but, to manage the problem by providing the solution.
On the other hand Johnson, et al (2008) suggested strategic and strategic management are two complex concepts which are explained from different angles but, Hooley, et al (2008) suggested the common between the two is both are means which lead to organisation success or failures. Blythe (2003) vision and mission define the direction and is base of strategy, however, when the vision lacks inability to differentiate from the competitors; lack of inspiration and excitement the organisation failed. Hence, leadership role is to ensure success by setting an effective vision which can differentiate the organisation from competitors; able to excite the people and inspire people to pursue in order to achieve success but, with an ability to strategically manage the current and future challenge and ability to foresee.
In order to simplify knowledge and skills author has broadly analysed them four headings as follows.
Ability to inspire and motivate
According to Holten, et al (2009) the need for intrinsic motivation has gained importance and Johnson, et al (2008) leadership needs to inspire people to achieve the vision. Leadership which can’t create a vision that create excitement among today’s skilled manpower might not succeed. However, earlier tools deployed to motivate for example; perks and salary increment are getting replaced with intrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivation may come from higher level of participation; freedom to express; creativity etc. Hence, leader should mend ways and means which can inspire people to pursue a strategic direction set for the organisation.
Communication and Proliferation
According to Deiser and Newton (2015) older ways to communicate are getting replaced with usage of social networking for proliferation because the new generation is comfortable with these technologies during communication. Hence, to achieve the vision leadership needs to learn and adopt these technologies in to manage the strategic direction set for the organisation.
Collaboration and Adaptive
Lynch (2012) suggested leadership style required to change according to 21st century culture and emerging situations, while Deiser and Newton (2015) vertical style with learned styles of leadership are no more effective. Hence, leadership required to adapt a more collaborative approach with skilled and competent manpower of 21st century. Leadership can’t adopt directive or authoritative approach with top-down communication to achieve the strategic direction.
Ability to analyse and solve problems
According to Ibarra and Hansen (2011) leadership requires displaying strong and speedy decision making ability. But, with an ability to critically analyse the situation, management can’t provide solution. However, collaboration and greater participation needs of people within 21st organisation required to be managed well. Hence, leadership requires involving people within organisation to analyse and provide solution in order to align them with vision with a sense of pride because of their value addition and shared responsibility.
1.2 Assess the contribution that factors other than skills and knowledge in leadership and strategic management make to the achievement of organisational vision and strategy
Other than skills and knowledge role there are factors which contributes significantly in the achievement of organisational vision and strategy.
Johnson et al (2011) mentioned about rationality based analysis instead of getting emotional or political to serve the few stakeholders’ interest. Hence, leadership and strategic management should not get involved into political power, for example; Bandle and Burke (2012) because of political power game HP board room infighting lead to lose to the organisation on every front. Mallin (2010) has mentioned about application of stewardship theory in order to serve the interest of shareholders. But, by suggested meeting the interest of shareholders leadership and strategic management might not be able to motivate others, for example; Bandler and Burke (2012) mentioned about dispirited engineers and employees at HP.
However, Johnson et al (2011) argued bargaining and negotiations become part of power control, as leadership and strategic management do not wish to lose control. However, Bolden and Gosling (2003) laid emphasis on trust, transparency and respect to ensure organisational success. Hence, instead of power politics and getting involved into negotiation and bargaining by power control groups, leadership and strategic management should act transparently, build trust among stakeholders. Further, as Johnson, et al (2011) suggested instead of using design lens, management should adopt experience lens through informal sensing and ideas lens by letting the strategy coming from any direction. However, organisations with design lens inhibit the innovation and creativity lead to failures.
Further, Johnson et al (2011) proposed organisational configuration which consists of structures, systems and configurations for operations enforcing each other. Author views effective organisational configuration leads to productivity, open communication and innovativeness. But, ineffective configuration results in confusion, lack of coordination and clarity of roles along with failure of shared ideas, for example; ‘One Sony’ structural changes lead to confusion and Sony continued to struggle due to lack of coordination and poor configuration.
3.1 Review theories of leadership and management and assess the implications for your personal development
Johnson et al (2011) suggested during change which is becoming constant for organisation different styles can be used by leadership. Hence, leadership require learning and developing different leadership styles. Author views coercion may be useful during rapid transformation. Hence, transitional theory can be applied. However, Sergio Marchionne challenged autocratic style and directive style at fiat. Autocratic and directive style seems to be based on trait and directive style is based on McGregor X Theory. But, Sergio Marchionne has adopted pace-setting style. At fiat, he has focussed on coordinating change agents instead of getting directly involved. He has suggested for leadership it is important to remain at centre instead at the top in order to achieve the organisational vision. He has adopted transformational strategy by bringing in the incremental changes. Doyle and stern (2006) has mentioned about flexibility in the strategic management in the present environment. By suggesting so leadership style changing according to situation has been emphasised. It seems to support situational theories.
But, business organisation set vision and develop strategy to achieve competitive advantage. Hill and Jones (2009) mentioned about effective strategy is the one which can provide above average profit on long term basis to the organisation. However, shareholder theory has been criticised for its myopic view, i.e., achieving higher return for shareholders as the prime objective. But, Collier (2004) mentioned about good and reliable relationship with external stakeholders which can lead to profits. Hence, Freeman (2010) stakeholder theory provides wider view by taking into consideration needs and expectations of internal and external stakeholders. However, there is likely to be differences in power and interest of different stakeholders group. Hence, a leadership theory can’t explain or applied to assess the personal develop needs.
The key to successful leadership development, it would appear, is achieving an appropriate balance between knowledge-exchange, action and reflection, and alignment between the needs and wants of the individual and those of the organisation. From an extensive review of the literature Burgoyne, Hirsh and Williams conclude: ”the evidence on how management and leadership works is that it works in different ways in different situations. The practical implication of this is that to get the benefit of management and leadership development requires the design of appropriate approaches for specific situations rather than the adoption of a universal model of best practice”
360 feedback, for example, although increasingly en vogue, like many approaches is found to be most effective when integrated within a comprehensive development programme and is significantly affected by the following three factors:
(1) a work context supportive of skills development,
(2) the belief of the participant that people can improve their skills, and
(3) a belief that they themselves are capable of improving and developing.
Indeed, factors contributing positively towards individual development performance across all approaches include
(1) opportunities for receiving and discussing individual feedback;
(2) the quality of management processes preceding, supporting and reinforcing development activities;
(3) the extent to which they are tailored to personal requirements; and
(4) the extent to which they draw on and develop personal experience
Thus, the choice of development approach is not a simple one. For maximum effect, we need to carefully consider what it is that we seek to develop and how best this can be achieved. If, for example, we wish to develop a culture of shared, considerate and reflective leadership within our organisation is it wise just to send individual ‘leaders’ on action-packed or highly prescriptive leadership training courses? Robert Chia recounts a Japanese management development programme for high-potential leaders that adopts a rather different approach – they were taken to a retreat in the mountains and encouraged to learn the art of tea pouring and observing the movement of carp. Such a programme, it is argued, sought to develop a sensitivity, self-discipline and capacity for pattern recognition that could not be achieved through more mainstream approaches. A clearly espoused theory of change that leads to desirable forms of behaviour, linked to ongoing monitoring and evaluation of impact(s) is increasingly deemed a crucial factor influencing the success of an LMD intervention.
Author found for personal development transformational leadership and pace-setting management are required to be focussed in order to meet 21st century leadership and strategic management challenges.
3.2 Carry out an audit of your own personal leadership and management knowledge and skills. The knowledge and skills identified must facilitate the creation and achievement of organisational vision
Over a period there are various skills and knowledge gained or improved by leaderships. But, leadership ability to think critically and processing of the information are important. The information is going to be about internal and external factors, for example; current competency level of the team; changes required to meet the external environmental changes. The vision can’t be based on imagination but, based on analysis of the information. Further, without an ability to communicate the vision and buy in of the team members it is more of a fantasy world. Finegold and Notbartolo (2011) suggested five leadership skills and knowledge to achieve organisational goals namely; analytical; interpersonal; execution; information processing and change management.
Analytical skills consist of critical thinking which is looking at pros and cons which I have missed sometimes, for example; decision to increase targets for the team was based on incremental growth expected from the market without realising the fact that the UK market prefers fresh food items instead of packed food. Hence, it also shows I have not relied upon research and tried to enquire from people.
Interpersonal skills to an extent depicted through my ability to convince team members and colleagues. Further, during teething situations and failures I have shared responsibility. However, to an extent collaboration was missing because serving the customers with best quality packed food could have been revised by interacting with team members. I think on execution part productivity of team members might have been achieved and I am able to take initiatives by revisiting the strategy. This also reflects my ability to set self-direction. This also displays my adaptive nature but, doesn’t display my ability to be creative or innovative. However, it also reflects flexibility. It may be argued creative people can be found within the organisation and it might not be necessary that only leadership can come up with innovative ideas. Hence, pace-setting is more important for strategic management.
3.3 Set objectives to meet your personal development needs in the context of strategic organisational needs
3.4 Prepare a personal development plan to develop own leadership and management skills to support the creation of organisational vision and strategy
|Objectives||Skills||Vision Creation/ strategy||Milestones/source of information||Activities and Monitoring|
|To develop common goal striving team||Ability to inspire and motivate||Strategy||Focus on the team work instead of personal goal achievement||Informal learning and 360 degree feedback|
|To ensure common goal persuasion by every team member sustainably||Communication and Proliferation||Strategy||Not regular meetings but, informal and formal two ways communication on vision||Informal learning and 360 degree feedback|
|To act as a pace-setter and display flexibility||Collaboration and Adaptive||Strategy||To celebrate every task achievement with team members through rewards and recognition||Formal training through CEO coaching and regular feedback from Coach|
|To improve analytical ability||Ability to analyse and solve problems||Creation||To analyse internal and external environment, stakeholders and try to change strategic direction as an when required||CEO coaching and feedback from Coach|
The development of ability to motivate and inspire is a key requirement of leadership in an organisation. I would be able to put this to use to meet the organisational goals and objectives if I am an effective leader. The development of this skills would help move forward the team and the achievement of yearly goals set i.e. team mission.
The communication and collaboration are important elements of leadership and management. The development of these skills is important for me as they will support in better working with the team and hence allow the development of confidence and relationship building in the team. This will further help the team to achieve the organisational goals and mission set for the year by the board.
The problem solving approach is an important function of a leader. The leadership is expected to show this trait in order to get work done in certain situations. The development of this skills can be done with experience and as a result, I would like to be coached or mentored to develop this skill. With time and experience I will be able to solve problems which at the departmental level would help drive efficiency and productivity in the event of faster decision making process. Hence these skills would provide for personal development and in turn help meet the organisational mission and vision set by the board.
According to Crestcom (2017) toughest core competency for leadership is to create vision and three secrets are defining and communicate vision; strategic thinking and planning and prioritisation.
Ability to define and communicate vision
A vision can set path while no vision might lead to organisation going directionless. Hence, for leadership defining vision is important because it brings in teams working together with a common goal. Since, vision answers “where organisation is going” hence, leadership can plan “how there can be reached”. It may imply vision should long term yet measurable. However, unless vision is exciting and inspirational for leadership as well as people it can’t be achieved. Steve Jobs had a vision to create tough phone and after numbers of failures because of shared vision and motivated team members finally delivered iPhone. The term shared vision is important yet the leadership ability to sustain the efforts in that direction plays an important role, which is not possible without communication. Steve Jobs remained in constant touch with team members during the failures and successes. Every milestone should be celebrated but, overall involvement of the leadership through time investment; intentions and ensuring everyone understand why they are going in the set direction is important.
According to financial news magazine the world’s most respected companies are the one having string management and business strategy (Crestcom, 2017). Strategy is the road map adopted to achieve the vision. Hence, internal and external factors plays important role, for example; during the development of iphone, Nokia used to rule the mobile handset industry with QWERTY. Further, ipod was a success and people were looking for something which can be combination of communication and entertainment. Further, road map should be based on strong ability to visualise the future and not just immediate benefits. Hence, road map should be for two or more years which can be measured by setting milestones. However, it should not be leadership imagination alone but, based on concrete reports and gaining understanding through others’ perspectives. It should not be aimed just be different from others and without bias. Steve Jobs knew that iphone can revolutionise the mobile industry but, he has created teams and interacted regularly unless a road map is set which was followed religiously and tracked even after certain failures.
Planning and Prioritisation
Sony strategy to become “One Sony” was a great idea but, after making lots of structural changes the group continued to struggle. However, at Fiat the CEO has planned well and set the priorities, executed them every well to revive the almost bankrupt car manufacturer company. Hence, for leadership it is important to have a clearly defined structure with milestones which are required to be executed. So, planning plays an important role. But, the plan must have prioritisation for example; at Fiat the first step was to negotiate and buy time for loan settlement followed by change attempted was to create a team of young managers ready to experiment and take on tough targets. The parallel step was to remove people at managerial level not ready to adapt. The third step was to revamp engineering team and develop better cars’ models.
There are various external stakeholders namely; customers; investors; contractors and suppliers; unions; media; society and government. Following are factors which impact on the communication of vision to the external stakeholders.
It is important to understand the knowledge level of external stakeholders, for example; a common person might get inspired by the vision statement that “working for recyclable economy in everything we make”, but media might question how and government may be interested to know more.
It is important to understand what kind of power external stakeholder may exert and based on the same the vision should be communicated, for example; investors; contractors and suppliers require to be kept engaged with the vision through regular interaction.
It may be important to understand how much influence (positive or negative) can be on the vision, for example; union may not be interested to know about the vision success which might lead to immediate retrenchment of redundant employees , where as customers might get influenced because of recyclable economy and may be society in general.
4.1 Assesses the benefits of review and explains when this tool can be used in the achievement of personal and organisational strategy (Presentation)
4.2 Evaluates the sources of information needed to review progress with achieving personal development plans
|Focus on the team work instead of personal goal achievement
The reduction in conflicts can be a source of information about the change in attitude of team member. Team members might not focus on personal goal or task achievement but, help each other to achieve the common goal. This will be an indicator of achievement of my personal goal achievement and leading to organisational success.
|Not regular meetings but, informal and formal two ways communication on vision
The increased sharing of ideas and feedback can be an indicator of personal goal achievement for the leadership development of an individual.
|To celebrate every task achievement with team members through rewards and recognition
Increase in frequency of celebration occasions of tasks’ achievement successfully is an indicator of personal develops plan achievement of the leadership.
|To analyse internal and external environment, stakeholders and try to change strategic direction as an when required
Immediate and updated information regarding internal and external environmental changes indicates improved ability to set direction for the organisation. The desired level of stakeholders’ engagement indicates leadership development.
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